Pregabalin is a gamma-Aminobutyric acid analog anticonvulsant and analgesic used for neuropathic pain and as an add on therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults.
It is considered to have a low potential for abuse and a limited dependence liability if misused and is classified as a Schedule V controlled substance in the United States.
- Neuropathic pain : The European Federation of Neurological Societies recommends pregabalin as a first line agent for the treatment of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain.
- It is also used to treat fibromyalgia (a long-lasting condition that may cause pain, muscle stiffness and tenderness, tiredness, and difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep).
- Pregabalin is used with other medications to treat certain types of seizures in people with epilepsy.It works by decreasing the number of pain signals that are sent out by damaged nerves in the body.
- Anxiety disorders : Anxiety disorders :It has also been found effective for generalized anxiety disorder and is (as of 2007) approved for this use in the European Union and Russia.
Febuxostat (INN; trade names Adenuric in Europe and New Zealand, Uloric in the US, Goturic in Latin America) is a drug that inhibits xanthine oxidase, thus reducing production of uric acid in the body. It is used in the treatment of chronic gout and hyperuricemia.
Febuxostat was discovered by scientists at the Japanese pharmaceutical company Teijin in 1998. Teijin partnered the drug with TAP Pharmaceuticals in the US and Ipsen in Europe. Ipsen obtained marketing approval for febuxostat from the European Medicines Agency in April 2008, Takeda obtained FDA approval in February 2009, and Teijin obtained approval from the Japanese “Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency” in 2011.
- Febuxostat is used to treat chronic gout and hyperuricemia
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence concluded that febuxostat is more effective than standard doses of allopurinol, but not more effective than higher doses of allopurinol.
- Febuxostat is in the US pregnancy category C; there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women
Rosuvastatin Calcium is a statin drug, that works by slowing the production of cholesterol by the body, used to lower cholesterol and fats (triglycerides) in the blood and is used to reduce the chances of developing problems like heart disease and strokes that can be caused, in part, by high cholesterol levels. It is often recommended to use Crestor in conjunction with a diet low in fats and cholesterol, and exercise (about 30 min. per day). Crestor is available as a generic termed rosuvastatin or rosuvastatin calcium. Side effects of Crestor include headache, depression, muscle aches or pains, joint pain, sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares), constipation, nausea, stomach pain, indigestion, or diarrhea.
- Rosuvastatin Calcium is used to reduce the chances of developing problems like heart disease and strokes that can be caused, in part, by high cholesterol levels.
- Crestor is available in tablets of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg strengths. Usual dose ranges from 5 to 20 mg per day. Crestor should be taken with water once a day at the same time of day, with or without food. Dosage may be adjusted depending on what medicines the patient is already taking. Crestor should not be taken during pregnancy or during breastfeeding because of potential birth defects. Infrequent but serious side effects include rhabdomyolysis (muscle damage or destruction) that can lead to acute renal failure and liver damage. Patients on Crestor should have liver function tests done routinely to determine if any damage is occurring. Patients with liver damage should not take Crestor. Patients that drink large amounts of alcohol and patients with renal problems may be advised not to take Crestor. In some patients, the muscle pain, abdominal pain and diarrhea may become severe. If these symptoms or allergic symptoms (hives, short of breath, tissue swelling) develop, the person should seek medical attention quickly.
Frusemide / Furosemide
Furosemide (INN/BAN), previously frusemide (former BAN), is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema.Along with some other diuretics, furosemide is also included on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s banned drug list due to its alleged use as a masking agent for other drugs.
It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
- Furosemide is primarily used for the treatment of hypertension and edema.
- It has also been used to prevent Thoroughbred and Standardbred race horses from Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.
- It is also used for hepatic cirrhosis, renal impairment, nephrotic syndrome, in adjunct therapy for cerebral or pulmonary edema where rapid diuresis is required (IV injection), and in the management of severe hypercalcemia in combination with adequate rehydration.
Tramadol (marketed as Ultram, and as generics) is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. It has two different mechanisms. First, it binds to the µ-opioid receptor. Second, it inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.
Serious side effects may include seizures, increased risk of serotonin syndrome, decreased alertness, and drug addiction. Common side effects include: constipation, itchiness and nausea, among others. A change in dosage may be recommended in those with kidney or liver problems. Its use is not recommended in women who are breastfeeding or those who are at risk of suicide..
- Tramadol is used primarily to treat mild-severe pain, both acute and chronic.
- Tramadol is recommended for the management of pain in fibromyalgia by the European League Against Rheumatism.
- Its analgesic effects take about one hour to come into effect and 2–4 hours to peak after oral administration with an immediate-release formulation.
- For pain moderate in severity its effectiveness is equivalent to that of morphine; for severe pain it is less effective than morphine.
- Available dosage forms include capsules, tablets, including extended release formulations and injections.
Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a COX-2 selective inhibitor from Merck & Co. Currently it is approved in more than 80 countries worldwide but not in the US, where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required additional safety and efficacy data for etoricoxib before it will issue approval.
Etoricoxib is indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic low back pain, acute pain, and gout. Approved indications differ by country.
- A Cochrane systematic review assessed the benefits of single-dose etoricoxib in reduction of acute post-operative pain in adults.
- Single-dose oral etoricoxib provides good quality pain relief post-operatively in adults and adverse events are similar to placebo in the studies included.
- Etoricoxib given at a dose of 120 mg is as effective or even better than other analgesics that are commonly used.
Sertraline (trade names Zoloft and others) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It was introduced to the market by Pfizer in 1991. Sertraline is primarily prescribed for major depressive disorder in adult outpatients as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder, in both adults and children. In 2013, it was the most prescribed antidepressant and second most prescribed psychiatric medication (after alprazolam) on the U.S. retail market, with over 41 million prescriptions.
Differences with other newer antidepressants are subtle and mostly confined to side effects. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs, with the types of adverse events usually including diarrhea, nausea, trembling, sexual dysfunction and weight gain. The incidence of diarrhea was higher with sertraline in comparison to other SSRIs.
- Sertraline is used for a number of conditions including: major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder and social phobia (social anxiety disorder).
- It has also been used for premature ejaculation and vascular headaches but evidence of the effectiveness in treating those conditions is not robust.
Abacavir Sulphate USP
Abacavir has caused severe and sometimes fatal allergic reactions. Contact your doctor right away if you develop fever; rash; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or stomach pain; cough, sore throat, or trouble breathing; unusual tiredness or achiness; or general feeling of being unwell. Do NOT take abacavir again or take any other medicine that contains abacavir if you have had an allergic reaction to abacavir. You may be at risk for an even more severe allergic reaction.
Patients who have a certain gene type called HLA-B*5701 have an increased risk of allergic reaction. A lab test may be performed before you start abacavir to see if you have this gene type. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.
- Abacavir sulphate is the most powerful nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NART) used to treat HIV and AIDS.
- Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue.
- Intracellularly, abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate (Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1996).
Tamsulosin HCl SR pellets
Tamsulosin hydrochloride (TSH) controlled-release capsule (pellets) was successfully prepared using a novel, simple, and flexible multiunit drug delivery system, which consisted of two different coated pellets. The TSH-loaded core pellets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose, Carbopol(R) 974P, and the active agent, were prepared by extrusion/spheronization method. Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55 were used as the coating materials to prepare sustained-release (SR) pellets and enteric-release (ER) pellets. The coated pellets were prepared using two different equipments: centrifugal coater and fluidized-bed coater. By adjusting the ratio of SR and ER pellets, more than one blend ratios, which meet the in vitro release criterion were obtained. A similarity factor (f(2)) was employed to choose the optimum proportion compared with the commercial product (Harnal capsule). The morphology of the pellet surfaces was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after dissolution. The release profiles were significantly affected by changing the proportions of SR and ER. The optimum ratio is SR:ER = 2:1 using a centrifugal coater (f(2) = 61.93) and SR:ER = 3:1 using a fluidized coater (f(2) = 66.42). This result suggests that blending these two-part pellets (SR and ER) can provide an alternative to preparing a controlled-release dosage form, instead of blending of the coating polymer.
- Tamsulosin is used in the treatment of difficult urination, a common symptom of enlarged prostate.
- Tamsulosin, and other medications in the class called alpha blockers, work by relaxing bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers in the prostate itself and make it easier to urinate.
Montelukast sodium, the active ingredient in SINGULAIR, is a selective and orally active leukotriene receptor antagonist that inhibits the cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT1 receptor.
Montelukast sodium is described chemically as [R-(E)]-1-[[[1-[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]phenyl]-3-[2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl]propyl]thio]methyl]cyclopropaneacetic acid, monosodium salt.
- Montelukast is used regularly to prevent the wheezing and shortness of breath caused by asthma and decrease the number of asthma attacks. Montelukast is also used before exercise to prevent breathing problems during exercise (bronchospasm).
- This medication can help decrease the number of times you need to use your rescue inhaler.
- This medication is also used to relieve symptoms of hay fever and allergic rhinitis (such as sneezing, stuffy/runny/itchy nose).
- This medication does not work immediately and should not be used to treat sudden asthma attacks or other breathing problems.